Interview: production program of a research engineer at Iontec

Mika Yamaguchi
Technical & Marketing Expert

1. Why did you choose the red algae Chondrus crispus to elaborate Bio-arct®?

The red algae Chondrus crispus can survive extreme winter conditions (low temperature and reduced lighting). During winter time, the red algae Chondrus Crispus naturally accumulates metabolites as L-Citrullyl-L-Arginine, flurodosides, taurine, arginine, citrulline.


2. How did you evaluate the red algae ability to concentrate metabolites overwinter?

We evaluated the different metabolites concentrations depending on the harvest month and we observed that L-Citrullyl-L-Arginine concentration increased considerably during winter.

The red algae is capable to survive during extreme winter conditions due to its ability to accumulate important metabolites (L-Citrullyl-L-Arginine, L-Gigartinine, Taurine, Glutamate, L-Citrulline). This stored energy in nitrogen metabolites will be consumed by the red algae to grow during spring time.


3. What is the role of those metabolites within the human body and what is the aim of such supplementation for human health?

The role of those metabolites are:

  • Minerals: co factor for several metabolism reactions in the body
  • Amino acids (specially arginine and citrulline) and peptides – source of nitrogen and stimulation of NO production – result in more energy production
  • Floridosides: osmoregulation


4. Which cultivation method is using to grow this red algae and why?

The method cultivation is ecoresponsible:












There is no contamination from environment, no impact on biotope and full control of biomass production.

5. What kind of studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of Bio-arct® in human?


1. Test in vitro 

  • ATP production

  • Metabolic activity


2. Pre -clinical study

  • A decrease in lactate concentration was observed after 28 days of use of the product under investigation in comparison with the onset of the study (D0), but the variation was not statistically significant (p>0.05);
  • After 28 days of use of the product under investigation, an improvement of 1.6% in the cardiorespiratory performance of the subjects was observed, due to the reduced physical effort reported and higher performance achieved in physical activities;
  • It was noted that the length of time until the maximum heart rate is reached increased by 19.4%, showing an improved cardiorespiratory performance by the subjects after using the product under investigation.


6. What are the physical and chemical characteristics of Bio-Arct®?

Bio-Arct is a brown to purple powder with a characteristic odor, 100% natural, content of L-citrullyl-L-arginine 2.3% minimum.


7. Which application forms and other ingredients is Bio-Arct® compatible with?

Bio-Arct is suitable in capsules, drinks, saches, chocolates, etc. Compatible with many other ingredients.


8. What are the main benefits of Bio-Arct® on human health?

Checking the table below, the metabolites mentioned have significantly increased. They are involved in no production, antioxidant properties, osmoregulation and blood circulation which are the Bio-Arct® benefits.


We had two batches of winter algae (2014 and 2015 harvests) and one batch of non-winter algae (35726) and we also compared these results to those described on the CEVA (Centre d’Etude et de Valorisation des Algues – Algae Study and Valuation) site for Chondrus crispus.



CEVA Non-winter Winter Comments
/ 35726


Total nitrogen g/100 g

(1.15 – 4.11)

2.96 5.27 3.81

The 2014 batch is the richer in total nitrogen, 78% higher than the non-winter batch and 29% higher than the 2015 batch; moreover, it is greater than the maximum content described by CEVA.  

Winter Chondrus crispus is very rich in protein, between 1/5 and 1/3 of its mass.

(x 6.25)
g/100 g

(7.2 -25.7)

18.5 32.9 23.8
Citrulline g/kg   2.81 5.16 4.69 In comparison with the non-winter batch, an increase of 84% and 67% can be seen with the 2014 and 2015 winter batches. The method used does not allow only the free citrulline to be quantified.
Ornithine g/100 g / 0.178 0.889 0.532 In comparison with the non-winter batch, an increase of 400% and 200% can be seen with the 2014 and 2015 winter batches.
Proline g/100 g / 0.669 1.2 0.961 In comparison with the non-winter batch, an increase of 79% and 44% can be seen with the 2014 and 2015 winter batches. 
Arginine g/100 g / 1.02 3.83 2.48 In comparison with the non-winter batch, an increase of 275% and 143% can be seen with the 2014 and 2015 winter batches.  
Glutamic acid g/100 g / 1.85 3.06 2.21 In comparison with the non-winter batch, an increase of 65% and 19% can be seen with the 2014 and 2015 batches.  
Free taurine mg/100 g / 333 319 452 With the 2014 winter batch, the taurine content is lower than with the non-winter batch. With the 2015 batch, on the other hand, an increase of 36% in the content can be seen. It can be considered that the wintering does not significantly modify the taurine content in the Chondrus crispus.

Citrulline  arginine

g/100 g / 0.2 4.1 2.8 It is on this dipeptide that the effect of overwintering is the greatest: x 20 for the 2014 batch and x 14 for the 2015 batch in comparison with the non-winter batch.